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## What is the formula for pivotal altitude?

Pivotal altitude can be determined by the following formula: *Groundspeed in knots. For miles-per-hour, divide by 15, instead of 11.3. Groundspeed is adopted, instead of indicated airspeed (IAS), as pivotal altitude is dependent on the horizontal speed of the aircraft relative to the ground.

### Is pivotal altitude AGL or MSL?

If you measured your groundspeed in knots, divide the squared groundspeed by 11.3. This gives you your approximate pivotal altitude above ground level (AGL). Add in the ground’s altitude to get your altitude above mean sea level (MSL).

#### How should a pilot begin the eight on pylons maneuver?

As the airplane approaches a position where the pylon appears to be just ahead of the wingtip, the turn should be started by lowering the upwind wing to place the pilot’s line of sight reference on the pylon. As the turn is continued, the line of sight reference can be held on the pylon by gradually increasing the bank.

What is a lazy eight maneuver?

Lazy Eight The lazy eight is a maneuver that is designed to develop. the proper coordination of the flight controls across a wide. range of airspeeds and attitudes. It is the only standard flight. training maneuver that, at no time, flight control pressures.

What is a Chandelle maneuver?

The chandelle is an aircraft control maneuver where the pilot combines a 180° turn with a climb. It is now required for attaining a commercial flight certificate in many countries. The Federal Aviation Administration in the United States requires such training.

## What is the minimum safe altitude for practicing maneuvers?

600-1000 feet
Before doing any maneuvers, clear the area by reversing course or making two ninety-degree changes of heading. The maneuvers should be flown at an altitude of 600-1000 feet AGL.

### What is the purpose of a lazy eight?

The lazy eight is a maneuver designed to develop perfect coordination of controls through a wide range of airspeeds and altitudes so that certain accuracy points are reached with planned attitude and airspeed.

#### What is a wingover maneuver?

A wingover (also called a wing-over-wing, crop-duster turn or box-canyon turn) is an aerobatic maneuver in which an airplane makes a steep climb, followed by a vertical flat-turn (the plane turns to its side, without rolling, similar to the way a car turns).

What are the 6 fundamentals of flight?

(1) Lift, (2) Gravity force or Weight, (3) Thrust, and (4) Drag.

What is lowest altitude I can legally fly?

500 feet
Low flying rules in the US An aircraft must maintain an altitude of 500 feet above the surface, except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

## Why do we learn steep turns?

The purpose of learning and practicing a steep turn is to train a pilot to maintain control of an aircraft in cases of emergency such as structural damage, loss of power in one engine etc. While doing this the pilot has to ensure no loss or gain of altitude.

### How to calculate the pivotal altitude of a plane?

To estimate pivotal altitude, square the groundspeed and then divide by 15 if you use mph, or 11.3 if you prefer knots. That will provide a starting altitude. For example, 100 mph times 100 equals 10,000, divided by 15 equals 666 feet approximate pivotal altitude.

#### What does it mean to fly around pylons at pivotal altitude?

The maneuver involves flying around pylons at a specific pivotal altitude, going from one pylon to the other and adjusting altitude as speed changes require. It is similar to eights around pylons, but with a distinctly different objective.

When to use pivotal altitude and bank angle?

The pivotal altitude does not vary with the angle of bank being used unless the bank is steep enough to affect the ground speed Fly the airplane at normal cruising speed, and at an altitude estimated to be below the proper pivotal altitude, and then placed in a medium-banked turn