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What are neurotoxins and Hemotoxins?

What are neurotoxins and Hemotoxins?

Neurotoxins affect the nervous system, cytotoxins affect cells and hemotoxins effect blood and organs. The way each of these toxins interact with the body is biochemically unique. Neurotoxins are by far the deadliest of the toxins. Since they target and destroy nerves they can cause paralysis, seizures and death.

What do Alpha neurotoxins do?

Functions. α-Neurotoxins antagonistically bind tightly and noncovalently to nAChRs of skeletal muscles, thereby blocking the action of ACh at the postsynaptic membrane, inhibiting ion flow and leading to paralysis.

What do Hemotoxins do to the body?

Hemotoxic venom damages the circulatory system and muscle tissue and causes swelling, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Viper venoms contain various components that can promote or inhibit hemostatic mechanisms, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet function, and vascular integrity.

How do neurotoxins cause paralysis?

BoNTs remain at the NMJ, where they cleave SNARE proteins, thereby blocking the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SV). The consequent inhibition in ACh release causes a flaccid paralysis.

Why can humans only be treated with antivenom once?

The reason was that a person’s immune system might recognize the animal serum in the antivenom, and there might be either a serious allergic reaction or a severe case of “serum sickness.” But even back then, many people got antivenom a second (or third, or fourth…)

What animal is immune to snake venom?

The hedgehog (Erinaceidae), the mongoose (Herpestidae), the honey badger (Mellivora capensis), the opossum, and a few other birds that feed on snakes, are known to be immune to a dose of snake venom.

How does Alpha Cobratoxin work?

α-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist which causes paralysis by preventing the binding of acetylcholine to the nAChR.

What’s a potent neurotoxin?

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin.

Is snake venom a neurotoxin?

Cobra venom (cobratoxin) is a small basic protein (Mr = 7000). It contains 62 amino acids in a single chain, cross-linked by four disulfide bonds. The toxin comprises 10% of the venom by weight. It is a neurotoxin that is secreted by glands of the cobra snake and injected into its prey via immobile, grooved fangs.

What are the 3 types of snake venom?

The pharmacological effects of snake venoms are classified into three main types, hemotoxic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic (WHO, 2010).

What are 10 effects that consuming neurotoxins have on the body?

Disorders associated with exposure to neurotoxic substances include impaired intelligence, impaired regulation of emotional responses, behavioural problems including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, depression, anxiety, memory formation, impaired physical coordination and increased risk of …

Is coffee a neurotoxin?

Together, caffeine at high doses may induce neuronal death through modulating various pathways. Additionally, acute caffeine exposure has been found to increase the risk of development of seizures or epilepsy due to development of neurotoxicity (Yasuhara and Levy, 1988, Vesoulis et al., 2016).

How are alpha neurotoxins similar to other toxins?

Within the α-neurotoxin family, there is a large degree of conservation and sequence similarity between different toxins, all of which form a three-finger-loop structure ( Fig. 1) [90].

What are the symptoms of neurotoxins and hemotoxins?

Peripheral nervous system damage due to neurotoxins such as neuropathy or myopathy cause paralysis. Hemotoxins: Signs and symptoms include nausea, hemolysis, blood clotting, tissue damage, disorientation, and headache

What kind of neurotoxins are found in snakes?

Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group, with over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been identified and sequenced. α-neurotoxins attack the Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of cholinergic neurons. They mimic the shape of the acetylcholine molecule, so fit into the receptors → they block the ACh flow → feeling of numbness and paralysis.

What is the function of hemotoxin in animals?

In addition to killing the prey, part of the function of a hemotoxic venom for some animals is to aid digestion. The venom breaks down protein in the region of the bite, making prey easier to digest. The process by which a hemotoxin causes death is much slower than that of a neurotoxin.