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What type of regulatory enzyme is ERK2?

What type of regulatory enzyme is ERK2?

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) is also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). Two similar protein kinases with 85% sequence identity were originally called ERK1 and ERK2.

What is the difference between ERK1 and ERK2?

Protein sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 are 84% identical in a given mammal; human ERK1 is larger than human ERK2 due to an extension of 17 amino-acids at its N-terminal and 2 amino-acids at its C-terminal.

How is MEK activated?

MEK itself is activated via serine phosphorylation by upstream activator kinases, including c-raf, mos and MEK kinase. These two serine residues are highly conserved in all members of the MEK family, including the yeast STE7 gene product, a MEK homolog in the yeast mating pheromone response pathway.

What does MEK stand for kinase?

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity is required for inhibition of skeletal muscle differentiation by insulin-like growth factor 1 or fibroblast growth factor 2. Endocrinology.

What type of protein is Akt?

Protein Kinase B
PKB is also known as Akt. Akt is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a critical role in controlling the balance between survival and death pathways in cells. The Akt kinase family comprises three highly homologous isoforms: Akt1 (PKBα), Akt2 (PKBβ), and Akt3 (PKBγ) [4,14].

What is mapk1?

Summary: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse cellular programs by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular responses. In mammals, there are more than a dozen MAPK enzymes that coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

What is the function of ERK?

ERK cascade plays a crucial role in multiple cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and survival. Therefore, it is essential for many physiological events including development, immunity, metabolism, and memory formation.

What does MAPK stand for?

Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) modules containing three sequentially activated protein kinases are key components of a series of vital signal transduction pathways that regulate processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death in eukaryotes from yeast to humans (Fig.

Is RAF a protein?

RAF kinases are a family of three serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that are related to retroviral oncogenes. The mouse sarcoma virus 3611 contains a RAF kinase-related oncogene that enhances fibrosarcoma induction. RAF is an acronym for Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma.

What MEK solvent?

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a colorless liquid that has a sweet odor and is soluble in water. It is a highly volatile chemical and is frequently used as a commercial cleaner and solvent for glues, paints, coatings, and printing inks.

What is the function of MEK?

MEK is a member of the MAPK signaling cascade that is activated in melanoma. When MEK is inhibited, cell proliferation is blocked and apoptosis (controlled cell death) is induced.

What does MEK stand for?

methyl ethyl ketone
Definition of methyl ethyl ketone. : a flammable liquid compound C4H8O similar to acetone and used chiefly as a solvent —abbreviation MEK.

Where did the name ERK1 and ERK2 come from?

Two similar (85% sequence identity) protein kinases were originally called ERK1 and ERK2. They were found during a search for protein kinases that are rapidly phosphorylated after activation of cell surface tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor.

How are ERK1 and ERK2 MAP kinases related?

ERK1/2 MAP kinases: structure, function, and regulation ERK1 and ERK2 are related protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade.

Which is a docking site of ERK1 / 2?

Besides this primary structure requirement, many ERK1/2 substrates possess a D-docking site, an F-docking site, or both. A variety of scaffold proteins including KSR1/2, IQGAP1, MP1, β-Arrestin1/2 participate in the regulation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase cascade.

What is the role of the ERK pathway?

The ERK pathway plays an important role of integrating external signals from the presence of mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) into signaling events promoting cell growth and proliferation in many mammalian cell types.