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What structures run through the guttural pouch?

What structures run through the guttural pouch?

A number of structures are found within the equine guttural pouches including cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII (cranial nerves V, VII, VIII run in close proximity to the pouches and can be affected by guttural pouch disease) the cranial cervical ganglion, cervical sympathetic trunk, internal carotid, external carotid …

What is the function of the guttural pouch in a horse?

Abstract. It is shown that the function of the guttural pouch in the horse is to cool the internal carotid arteries (ICA) during exercise, thus keeping the brain from overheating.

Where is the guttural pouch in a horse?

The guttural pouches are unique to a small number of animal species, including the horse. They are sacs of air that expand from the Eustachian tube, with one on each side of the horse’s head. They are positioned beneath the ear and each guttural pouch cavity in an adult horse can hold as much as a coffee mug.

What cranial nerves are in guttural pouch?

The glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves; the sympathetic trunk leaving from the cranial cervical ganglion; and the internal carotid all cause a mucosal fold indent within the medial compartment, visible when viewed endoscopically. The facial nerve is in contact with the dorsal part of the pouch.

How do you treat guttural pouch mycosis?

Medical treatment for guttural pouch mycosis involves the infusion of topical antifungal agents into the affected guttural pouch with or without systemic antifungal medications. The response to topical treatment is generally slow (taking up to 5 months) and the success of such treatment varies greatly.

How do you prevent guttural pouch mycosis?

With no definitive cause identified, veterinarians can only speculate how to lessen the chances your horse will develop guttural pouch mycosis: Keep stalls clean and dry. Be sure to clean out the corners of the horse’s stall where molds and fungi might accumulate.

What causes guttural pouch infections in horses?

Aspergillus species of fungus are common causes of these infections, although other species are sometimes identified. The infection is usually seen in mature horses that are stabled. Guttural pouch mycosis causes damage to the cranial nerves and to the arteries found in the lining of the guttural pouch.

What causes guttural pouch infection in horses?

How long does a guttural pouch test take?

Horses carry strangles in their guttural pouches so if they are currently infected or carrying the disease then the samples will confirm it. Samples are usually sent for culture and PCR (detecting the DNA of the bacteria) and can take up to 7 days for the results.

How is guttural pouch empyema treated?

Antifungal drugs that are infused directly into the guttural pouch are the usual treatment for guttural pouch mycosis. If damage to the arteries has occurred, it may be necessary to perform surgery to close the affected blood vessel. This can help prevent a fatal hemorrhage.

How is mycosis guttural pouch diagnosed?

The normal appearance of the opening to the left guttural pouch (black arrow) can also be seen. Endoscopy of the guttural pouch is the goal standard to diagnose guttural pouch mycosis. This involves passing an endoscope, which is a small flexible camera, up the nose and into the guttural pouches.

How long will a horse test positive for strangles?