What is shale gas revolution?
The “Shale Revolution” refers to the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling that enabled the United States to significantly increase its production of oil and natural gas, particularly from tight oil formations, which now account for 36% of total U.S. crude oil production.
When was the shale gas revolution?
Shale gas was first extracted as a resource in Fredonia, New York, in 1821, in shallow, low-pressure fractures. Horizontal drilling began in the 1930s, and in 1947 a well was first fracked in the U.S. Federal price controls on natural gas led to shortages in the 1970s.
How did the shale gas revolution influence the US natural gas market?
A decade ago, the U.S. was expecting large LNG imports due to falling indigenous supplies and rising demand. The shale gas revolution has turned the U.S. from a net LNG importer into an exporter, and LNG facilities that were originally built for imports have been converted into export terminals.
What is meant by shale gas?
Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas (see Fig. 1.4). Shale gas is trapped within the pores of this sedimentary rock.
Why is shale gas bad?
But US researchers found that shale gas wells leak substantial amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. This makes its climate impact worse than conventional gas, they say – and probably worse than coal as well.
What are the advantages of shale gas?
It notes that done properly, shale gas development can enhance energy security and the availability of energy fuels, lower natural gas prices, offer a cleaner environmental footprint than some other fossil fuels, and enable local economic development.
How long will shale gas reserves last?
Assuming the same annual rate of U.S. dry natural gas production in 2019 of nearly 34 Tcf, the United States has enough dry natural gas to last about 84 years. The actual number of years the TRR will last depends on the actual amount of dry natural gas produced and on changes in natural gas TRR in future years.
Is shale gas and natural gas the same?
This natural gas is referred to as shale gas or tight gas, and it is sometimes called unconventional natural gas. Natural gas also occurs with deposits of crude oil, and this natural gas is called associated natural gas. Natural gas deposits are found on land, and some are offshore and deep under the ocean floor.
Where did the shale gas revolution come from?
This revolution in natural gas — unleashed by a flood of recently accessible shale gas reserves, once thought to be unrecoverable — is the product of over 25 years of federal agencies and programs driving technology development in collaboration with private gas companies.
What is shale gas good for?
Shale gas is having a beneficial impact on supplies and consumer prices for natural gas, as well as additional environmental benefits: Natural gas provides a quarter of overall U.S. energy; It is used to generate a quarter of the nation’s electricity.
Is shale oil used for gas?
Shale oil is similar to petroleum, and can be refined into many different substances, including diesel fuel, gasoline, and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Companies can also refine shale oil to produce other commercial products, such as ammonia and sulfur. The spent rock can be used in cement.
What are the disadvantages of shale gas?
- Fosile fuel which emits carbon dioxide when it’s burned.
- Contains 80-95% methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG)
- Energy penalties at every stage of production and distribution.
- Energy use competes with use for chemicals and fertilizers.
- Environmentally dangerous. Water pollution due to runoff of fracking chemicals.
Can shale gas ever be profitable?
In the past the production of shale gas was generally too slow to be profitable, but now wells can be drilled horizontally for long distances through the shale beds, and the formations can be stimulated by hydraulic fracturing to enhance gas production greatly. About 25 percent of the gas produced in the United States comes from shales, and that proportion is expected to rise to 50 percent before the mid-21st century.
How oil and gas is extracted from shale?
Shale oil extraction process decomposes oil shale and converts its kerogen into shale oil—a petroleum-like synthetic crude oil. The process is conducted by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.
What is the importance of shale gas?
Shale gas is having a beneficial impact on supplies and consumer prices for natural gas, as well as additional environmental benefits: • Natural gas provides a quarter of overall U.S. energy; • It is used to generate a quarter of the nation’s electricity.
How is shale oil/gas produced?
Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. These processes convert the organic matter within the rock ( kerogen) into synthetic oil and gas.